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Innovacera offer some of the China’s largest alumina ceramic components for manufacturing equipment

Innovacera offer some of the world’s largest alumina ceramic components for Industrial,LCD and Semiconductor manufacturing equipment, helping manufacturers achieve greater precision for today’s applications.

Alumina Ceramic Properties
High hardness
Wear resistant
Elextrical insulation
Chemical resistant
Tight tolerance
Temperature resistant
Food compatibility

Oxide ceramic materials we offer: 92%, 96%, 99.3% Alumina and Zirconia.



Technical ceramic solutions for your wear resistant solutions

Innovacera supply a variety of high-purity ceramic materials in Xiamen, China. We are a leading supplier of wear-resistant ceramics, offering solutions for abrasion and corrosion problems.

Our solutions are based on your application parameters: types of abrasion, system and equipment design, operating temperatures and materials. Innovacera’s fine-grained alumina, silicon nitride and zirconia ceramic offer properties that will optimize the solution for any wear application.

Wear-Resistant ceramic linings increase productivity in a variety of typical applications include:

Ash Lines                                                Centrifuges
Pipe Elbows                                           Chutes
Pump Housings                                    Tanks
Cyclones                                                 Transitions
Troughs and Flumes                            Dust Collectors
Spray Driers                                          Chippers and Chip Bins
Hoppers                                                 Wash Boxes
Dredging Equipment                           Silos
Screw Conveyors                                 Classifiers

Wear resisstance solution’s Project

chute ceramic lining

chute ceramic lining

ceramic lined pipe 04

ceramic lined pipe 04

ceramic lined pipe 13

ceramic lined pipe 13

ceramic lined pipe 10

ceramic lined pipe 10

ceramic lining pipe

ceramic lining pipe

To solve abrasion problems in your material handling systems, contact the experts at Innovacera mail

Alumina is Harder than Zirconia, So It Must be More Wear Resistant?

Although it’s commonly accepted that hardness equates with wear resistance, it’s not always the case. In sliding wear environments, hard counter faces that do not interact with each other are an advantage. The engineering grades of Alumina are typically 25-50% harder than zirconia grade so in sliding wear environments or pure abrasive wear, where third body abrasive wear particles are present, alumina often outperforms Zirconia.

However, in erosive wear environments such as those caused by an abrasive slurry impacting a wear part such as an oilfield valve, Zirconia can be the best performer as it’s high toughness reduces the spread of impact cracks and the micro fracture of the surface which generate erosive wear debris and surface damage.

When running an engineering ceramic against a dissimilar material it’s not always the case that the softer material performs poorly. Y-TZP running against Y-TZP has been shown to be a very poor wear surface combination, whereas, Y-TZP running against cast iron provides a better overall wear performance than the harder, alumina/cast iron combination.

Although its beyond this article to delve too deep into the tribology of ceramic interfaces, in Zirconia on Zirconia contact it’s the low thermal conductivity of the Zirconia that can be a negative factor, as the frictional heat generated in like on like sliding does not dissipate from the surface and the surface hardness decreases with a follow on increase in wear related damage.

Advanced Ceramics – The Evolution, Classification, Properties, Production, Firing, Finishing and Design of Advanced Ceramics


The continuing evolution of the ceramics and materials world and the associated materials technologies is accelerating rapidly with each new technological development supplying more data to the knowledge bank. As new materials and even newer technologies are developed; methods of handling, forming and finishing are required to be devised to maintain pace with this rapid rate of development. One of the most prominent examples of this rapid and accelerating technological development is the electronics industry, more specifically the simple transistor. The pace of this development and the development of the associated materials and processing technology has been quite astounding. The push has been along miniaturisation and packing the maximum amount of performance into the smallest space. Recently noted, an e-mail quote stated that; “If the Automotive industry had advanced at the same pace as the Computer industry, we would be driving cars, which gave a thousand kilometres to the litre and cost $25”. The concept of the simple transistor stands as one of the most significant electronic engineering achievements of the 20th century.

Advances in Ceramic Technology in the Twentieth Century

The 20th century has produced the greatest advancement in ceramics and materials technology since humans have been capable of conceptive thought. The extensive metallurgical developments in this period have now produced almost every conceivable combination of metal alloys and the capabilities of those alloys are fairly well known and exploited. The push for ever faster, more efficient, less costly production techniques continues today. As the limits of metal-based systems are surpassed, new materials capable of operating under higher temperatures, higher speeds, longer life factors and lower maintenance costs are required to maintain pace with technological advancements. Metals, by virtue of their unique properties: ductility, tensile strength, abundance, simple chemistry, relatively low cost of production, case of forming, case of joining, etc. have occupied the vanguard position in regard to materials development. By contrast ceramics: brittle by nature, having a more complex chemistry and requiring advanced processing technology and equipment to produce, perform best when combined with other materials, such as metals and polymers which can be used as support structures. This combination enables large shapes to be made; the Space Shuttle is a typical example of the application of advanced materials and an excellent example of the capability of advanced materials.

Recent Advances in Ceramic Technology

It is only during the last 30 years or so, with the advances of understanding in ceramic chemistry, crystallography and the more extensive knowledge gained in regard to the production of advanced and engineered ceramics that the potential for these materials has been realised. One of the major developments this century was the work by Ron Garvie et alat the CSIRO, Melbourne where PSZ (partially stabilised zirconia) and phase transformation toughening of this ceramic was developed. This advancement changed the way ceramic systems were viewed. Techniques previously applied to metals were now considered applicable to ceramic systems. Phase transformations, alloying, quenching and tempering techniques were applied to a range of ceramic systems. Significant improvements to the fracture toughness, ductility and impact resistance of ceramics were realised and thus the gap in physical properties between ceramics and metals began to close. More recent developments in non-oxide and tougher ceramics (e.g. nitride ceramics) have closed the gap even further.

Properties of Ceramics

Ceramics for today’s engineering applications can be considered to be non-traditional. Traditional ceramics are the older and more generally known types, such as: porcelain, brick, earthenware, etc. The new and emerging family of ceramics are referred to as advanced, new or fine, and utilise highly refined materials and new forming techniques. These “new” or “advanced” ceramics, when used as an engineering material, posses several properties which can be viewed as superior to metal-based systems. These properties place this new group of ceramics in a most attractive position, not only in the area of performance but also cost effectiveness. These properties include high resistance to abrasion, excellent hot strength, chemical inertness, high machining speeds (as tools) and dimensional stability.

Classifications of Technical Ceramics

Technical Ceramics can also be classified into three distinct material categories:

• Oxides: Alumina, zirconia

• Non-oxides: Carbides, borides, nitrides, silicides

• Composites: Particulate reinforced, combinations of oxides and non-oxides.

Each one of these classes can develop unique material properties.

Oxide Ceramics

Oxidation resistant, chemically inert, electrically insulating, generally low thermal conductivity, slightly complex manufacturing and low cost for alumina, more complex manufacturing and higher cost for zirconia.

Non-Oxide Ceramics

Low oxidation resistance, extreme hardness, chemically inert, high thermal conductivity, and electrically conducting, difficult energy dependent manufacturing and high cost.

Ceramic-Based Composites

Toughness, low and high oxidation resistance (type related), variable thermal and electrical conductivity, complex manufacturing processes, high cost.


Technical or Engineering ceramic production, compared to yesterday’s traditional ceramic production, is a much more demanding and complex procedure. High purity materials and precise methods of production must be employed to ensure that the desired properties of these advanced materials are achieved in the final product.

Oxide Ceramics

High purity starting materials (powders) are prepared using mineral processing techniques to produce a concentrate followed by further processing (typically wet chemistry) to remove unwanted impurities and to add other compounds to create the desired starting composition. This is a most important stage in the preparation of high performance oxide ceramics. As these are generally high purity systems minor impurities can have a dynamic effect, for example small amounts of MgO can have a marked effect upon the sintering behaviour of alumina. Various heat treatment procedures are utilised to create carefully controlled crystal structures. These powders are generally ground to an extremely fine or “ultimate” crystal size to assist ceramic reactivity. Plasticisers and binders are blended with these powders to suit the preferred method of forming (pressing, extrusion, slip casting, etc.) to produce the “raw” material. Both high and low-pressure forming techniques are used. The raw material is formed into the required “green” shape or precursor (machined or turned to shape if required) and fired to high temperatures in air or a slightly reducing atmosphere to produce a dense product.

Non-Oxide Ceramics

The production of non-oxide ceramics is usually a three stage process involving: first the preparation of precursors or starting powders, secondly the mixing of these precursors to create the desired compounds (Ti + 2B, Si + C, etc.) and thirdly the forming and sintering of the final component. The formation of starting materials and firing for this group, require carefully controlled furnace or kiln conditions to ensure the absence of oxygen during heating as these materials will readily oxidise during firing. This group of materials generally requires quite high temperatures to effect sintering. Similar to oxide ceramics, carefully controlled purities and crystalline characteristics are needed to achieve the desired final ceramic properties.

Ceramic-Based Composites

This group can be composed of a combination of: oxide ceramics – non-oxide ceramics (granular, platy, whiskers, etc.), oxide – oxide ceramics, non-oxide – non-oxide ceramics, ceramics – polymers, etc. an almost infinite number of combinations are possible. The object is to improve either the toughness or hardness to be more suited to a particular application. This is a somewhat new area of development and compositions can also include metals in particulate or matrix form.


Firing conditions for new tooling ceramics are somewhat diverse both in temperature range and equipment. This subject is too lengthy to cover here. A wide range of publications is available on this subject for those interested. However, a brief description of some techniques and conditions is appropriate to provide an understanding of the basic technology of advanced ceramics firing. In general these materials are fired to temperatures well above metals, and typically in the range of 1500°C to 2400°C and even higher. These temperatures require very specialised furnaces and furnace linings to attain these high temperatures. Some materials require special gas environments such as nitrogen or controlled furnace conditions such as vacuum. Others require extremely high pressures to achieve densification (HIPs). Thus these furnaces are quite diverse both in design and concept. The typical methods of heating in these furnaces are gases (gas plus oxygen, gas plus heated air), resistance heating (metallic, carbon and ceramic heaters) or inductance heating (R.F., microwave).

Firing Environments

Gas heating is generally carried out in normal to low pressures. Resistance heating is carried out in pressures ranging from vacuum to 200 MPa. Inductance heating can also be done over the same range as resistance. In both resistance and inductance heating the systems do not have to contend with high volumes of ignition products thus can be contained. The typical furnace types used in the foregoing methods are box, tunnel, bell, HIP (gas and resistance heated), sealed (“autoclave” sealed type for carbon element heated), sealed special design (water-cooled type for R.F. heated) or open design microwave heated, (small items).

The Importance of the Firing Process

This brief listing serves to provide an indication of just how diverse the techniques employed to fire advanced ceramics are. Each ceramic type has its own special requirement in regard to firing rate, environmental condition and temperature. If these conditions are not met then the quality of the final product and even the formation of the final compounds and densities will not be achieved.


One of the final stages in the production of advanced materials is the finishing to precise tolerances. These materials can be extremely hard, with hardnesses approaching diamond, and thus finishing can be quite an expensive and slow process. Finishing techniques can include: laser, water jet and diamond cutting, diamond grinding and drilling, however if the ceramic is electrically conductive techniques such as EDM (electrical discharge machining) can be used. As the pursuit of hardness is one of the prime developmental objectives, and as each newly developed material increases in hardness, the problems associated with finishing will also increase. The development of CNC grinding equipment has lessened the cost of final grinding by minimising the labour content, however large runs are generally required to offset the set up costs of this equipment. Small runs are usually not economically viable. One alternative to this problem is to “net form” or form to predictable or acceptable tolerances to minimise machining. This has been achieved at Taylor Ceramic Engineering by the introduction of a technique called – “near to net shape forming”. Complex components can be formed by this unique Australian development with deviations as low as ±0.3% resulting in considerable savings in final machining costs.

In many applications today, the beneficial properties of some materials are combined to enhance and at times support other materials, thus creating a hybrid composite. In the case of hybrid composites, it is the availability and performance properties of each new material, which sets the capability of the new material. In-field evaluation testing has to be carried out in certain instances, to determine the long-term durability of the new composite before actually committing to service.


The properties of advanced materials need to be considered when designing structures, components and devices. The final design and material selection must ultimately be cost effective, must function reliably and, ideally, should be an improvement upon existing technology. Prior performance knowledge is obviously an asset, however in many new applications prior knowledge may not be available thus careful observation and recording of performance characteristics of the experimental model, or in plant trial, is needed. In this regard the Materials Engineer works in close contact with the research team to cooperatively develop the new concept. As we are still working with relatively brittle materials this aspect has to be always kept in mind. New techniques such as Finite Element Analysis have proven beneficial in this regard. The use of computer modelling allows the structures to be created on screen without the need for costly prototypes.

Where to next?

Advanced ceramic materials are now well established in many areas of every day use. The improvements in performance, service life, savings in operational costs and savings in maintenance are clear evidence of the benefits of advanced ceramic materials. Life expectancies, now in years instead of months with cost economics in the order of only double existing component costs, give advanced ceramics materials a major advantage. The production of these advanced materials is a complex and demanding process with high equipment costs and the requirement of highly specialised and trained people. The ceramic materials of tomorrow will exploit the properties of polycrystalline phase combinations and composite ceramic structures, i.e. the co-precipitation or inclusion of differing crystalline structures having beneficial properties working together in the final compound.

Tomorrow (even today) the quest will be to pack the highest amount of bond energy into the final ceramic compound and to impart a high degree of ductility or elasticity into those bonds. This energy level has to be exceeded to cause failure or dislocation. The changing pace of technology and materials also means that newer compounds precisely engineered to function will be developed. Just how this will be achieved and when the knowledge becomes public – who can tell! Ceramics, an old class of material, still present opportunities for new material developments.

It is a fascinating quest but this aspect of secrecy and the continued presence of “Black Art” in many ceramic production industries make it even more fascinating.

Note: A full list of references is available by referring to the original text.

Primary author: D.A. Taylor
Source: Materials Australia, Vol. 33, No. 1, pp. 20-22 January/February 2001.

For more information on this source please visit The Institute of Materials Engineering Australasia.

CoorsTek Inc Introduces High-Performance Aluminum Nitride(AlN) Ceramic Substrates

The largest supplier of ceramic substrates for decades, CoorsTek Inc expands product line to include high-heat-dissipation aluminum nitride(AlN) ceramics substrates.

February 12, 2013 – Golden, Colorado – CoorsTek Inc, the world’s largest technical ceramics manufacturer, today announced introduction of aluminum nitride substrates. Ideal for the rapidly growing LED market and other markets where high heat dissipation is useful, these ceramic substrates boast a thermal conductivity of 170 W/m.K.

CoorsTek AlN (aluminum nitride) ceramic substrates feature a very high dielectric strength, are a non-toxic alternative to BeO (beryllium oxide), and exhibit a thermal expansion coefficient similar to Si, GaN, and GaAs semiconductors.

“While we already offer an extensive line of ceramic substrates, our new high-performance aluminum nitride substrates cover high heat dissipation applications,” says Andrew Golike, Electronics General Manager for CoorsTek,Inc. “We’ve ramped our production and finishing services to ensure an on-timedelivery for our customers,” he continues.


Advanced Ceramics and Technical Ceramics

The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) defines a ceramic as “an article having a glazed or unglazed body of crystalline or partly crystalline structure, or of glass, which body is produced from essentially inorganic, non-metallic substances and either is formed from a molten mass which solidifies on cooling, or is formed and simultaneously or subsequently matured by the action of the heat.”

The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικός (keramikos), meaning inorganic, non-metallic materials formed by the action of heat. Until the middle of the last century the most commonly known ceramics were traditional clays, bricks, tiles, cements and glass. Many ceramic materials are hard, porous and brittle. The study and development of advanced ceramics over recent decades has involved ways to alleviate problems that rise from these characteristics. Morgan Technical Ceramics has played an important role in this development and today has a portfolio of Oxide, Nitride and Carbide ceramics which, using applications engineering, promotes their key properties enabling these materials to be used in a broad range of applications involving:

High Temperature Environments
Extreme Cold (Cryogenic) Environments
Highly Corrosive Environments
High Pressure Environments
High Vacuum Environments
High Frequency Applications
Hermetic sealing Applications

Advanced Ceramic raw materials as below

Alumina (Al2O3)
Aluminium Nitride (AlN)
Aluminium Silicate
Boron Carbide (B4C)
Boron Nitride (BN)
CVD Silicon Carbide
Fused Silica
Machineable Glass Ceramic
Magnesium Oxide (MgO)
Pyrolytic Boron Nitride (PBN)
Silicon Carbide (SiC)
Silicon Nitride (Si3N4)
Zirconia (TZP)
Zirconia Toughened Alumina (ZTA)

What are Advanced Ceramics?

What are Advanced Ceramics?

The English word ceramics is derived from the Greek word keramos, which means “burned clay.”

The term originally referred to china almost exclusively. Nowadays, however, we often refer to non-metallic, inorganic substances such as refractories, glass and cements as ceramics. For this reason, ceramics are now regarded as “non-metallic, inorganic substances that are manufactured through a process of molding or shaping and exposure to high temperatures.”

The ceramics, porcelains are used in electronics and other high-tech industries, so they must meet highly precise specifications and demanding performance requirements. Today, they are called Advanced Ceramics (also known as “technical ceramics”)* to distinguish them from conventional ceramics made from natural materials, such as clay and silica rock. Advanced Ceramics are carefully engineered materials in which the chemical composition has been precisely adjusted using refined or synthesized raw powder, with a well-controlled method of forming and sintering.

The term “Advanced Ceramics” is interchangeable with “fine ceramics,” “structure ceramics,” “technical ceramics” and “engineered ceramics.” Use varies by region and industry.

How are advanced ceramic components made?

Advanced technical ceramics are generally produced on a relatively small scale. Expensive raw materials are used but these are compensated for with the resultant improved properties and consistency.

The important processing of advanced ceramic components are produced by sintering (firing) compacted ceramic powder(raw material) forming. The form components are usually referred to as ‘green-state’ and numerous powder-forming processes have been developed including dry pressing,hot pressing,isostatic pressing(CIP and HIP),injection,slip casting and extrusion. However, the powder consists of solid, hard, brittle particulates, so it is difficult to consolidate in a die by pressure alone. A binder is usually added to enhance the flow properties of the powder, leading to higher density in the final component. The binders used vary according to the process to be used and the desired properties of the final product.

Once the ceramic powders have been compacted to produce the green-state component, they are approximately 50-70% dense. They are also relatively weak, but with care can be machined to quite complex geometries. To impart strength, the green state components are usually sintered.

Initial heating (up to 250°C) volatilises any organic processing additives (binders) and decomposable constituents. As the temperature increases to the firing temperature, consolidation, or sintering of the ceramic powders (solid state sintering) begins and is usually accompanied by shrinkage. This shrinkage must be accounted (designed) for when machining in the green-state.

Sintering can be assisted (decreasing temperature or time requirements) by the deliberate addition of additives which will react to produce lower melting point secondary phases (liquid phase sintering). These secondary phases can be envisaged as ‘glueing’ the ceramic particles together. This is the case for ceramics such as alumina. Sometimes, sintering aids are added to enhance diffusion (which aids sintering), this is the case when additions of boron or aluminium are added to hot pressed silicon carbide.

A general flow diagram for ceramic processing is shown as the linked.

Advance Ceramic Processing

Advanced Ceramics Show on The 9th China(Jingdezhen)International Ceramic Fair

The 9th China(Jingdezhen)International Ceramic Fair on 18th-22th Oct,2012,

The principal exhibitions of the Fair include:
1, Daily-use Ceramics
2, Creative Ceramics
3, Overseas Ceramics
4, Advanced Ceramics
5, Ceramic Packaging
6, Tea-sets & Tea-ceremonies
7, Art Ceramics
8, Contemporary International Ceramic Exhibition
9, Exhibition of Finest Ceramics from Ten Famous Kiln Sites

Some interesting products show as below;

Alumina Ceramic Pen

Alumina Ceramic Pen

Alumina Ceramic Bend Tube

Alumina Ceramic Bend Tube

Alumina Ceramic Faucet with applique galze

Alumina Ceramic Faucet with applique glaze

Alumina Ceramic Tube and Ring

Alumina Ceramic Tube and Ring

Other Advanced Ceramic Components

Other Advanced Ceramic Components

Advanced Ceramic Components for daily-used

Advanced Ceramic Components for daily-used

Ultra-thin Transparent Ceramic Lighting

Ultra-thin Transparent Ceramic Lighting

Zirconia Ceramic Components

Zirconia Ceramic Components

Zirconia Ceramic Roller

Zirconia Ceramic Roller


Anisotropic, transparent fluoroapatite ceramics for high-power laser applications

Anisotropic, transparent fluoroapatite ceramics for high-power laser applications
Edited By Eileen De Guire • October 22, 2012

An Alfred University team led by Yiquan Wu is developing methods for synthesizing anisotropic, transparent, polycrystalline ceramics for high-power applications like laser-based fast-ignition of fusion. Credit: Wu; Alfred Univ.

You need a spark to light a fire, and sometimes that’s not so easy, as anybody who’s tried to light a too-green yule log can attest. Thermonuclear reactions, too, have to be ignited, and that is definitely not easy.

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has been studying the problem and is making significant progress on their laser-based “fast ignition” approach for igniting a thermonuclear reaction in a compressed hydrogen isotope fuel pellet. The conventional approach, called the “central hot spot,” involves simultaneously compressing and igniting a spherical fuel capsule in an implosion. In contrast, the FI approach separates the compression and ignition stages of the implosion, which provides advantages such as allowing for variability in fuel capsule dimensions and requiring less mass for ignition (thus less energy input and more energy gain). If the advantages of FI can be realized, the eventual development of an inertial fusion-energy power plant should be easier. Also, the ability to study these types of reactions in a controlled setting could eliminate the need for underground testing of nuclear weapons and allow scientists to study the physics and chemistry unique to the cores of stars and planets.

FI is, itself, a sophisticated technology that involves synchronizing the outputs of 192 laser beams to deliver a massive amount of energy to the fuel pellet. In May, Nature Photonics reported that LLNL successfully demonstrated the technology in March, firing the 192 beams simultaneously and delivering 1.875 megajoules of energy in 23 billionths of a second. LLNL followed-up with a successful repeat firing in July, bringing the possibility of laser-based fusion “75% of the way” to reality, according to a story on

There are some practical problems, however. According to the LLNL website, the 192-laser array can fire off a beam only every few hours; between firings, time is needed for the thousands of optics to cool enough to endure another round. Thus, along with this technology, LLNL is working on developing a single-beam laser system in a program called “Mercury.” Mercury’s scientists have already come up with a method for cooling the optics that will allow for frequent firing of the laser. The Mercury technology uses light from diode lasers (similar to those used in commercial CD read/write players) that is amplified as it passes through a ytterbium-strontium-fluoroapatite (Yb:S-FAP) single crystal gain medium. While Yb:S-FAP is one of the most promising materials for high-efficiency, high-power laser applications, it is difficult to grow as a large single crystal, according to Alfred University assistant professor Yiquan Wu.

Wu, supported by an Air Force Office of Scientific Research Young Investigator Award, is studying the synthesis and properties of anisotropic, polycrystalline, transparent ytterbium-doped strontium fluoroapatite, the same material used now as a single crystal. (The Mercury website says that LLNL also is looking at transparent ceramic amplifier media, but does not mention composition.)

In an email Wu comments, “If polycrystalline hexagonal Yb:S-FAP transparent ceramics can be successfully developed through advanced ceramics processing, it will be possible to make large-size laser gain media with optical properties currently unattainable by the Czochralski process.” The gain media for advanced laser applications, such as these, have cross-sections of 10-40 cm2.

According to Wu, laser ceramics are attractive because they last longer and can be fabricated more efficiently than single crystals, i.e., they can be formed faster with higher output production while using cost-effective manufacturing methods. He also notes that there are design opportunities that cannot be obtained with existing lasers. “Laser ceramics allow for the production of homogeneous solid solutions with high concentrations of laser-active ions and for composite laser media with complicated structures. The development of processing techniques for manufacturing laser ceramics with arbitrary geometries and with variable dopants would allow the optical and physical characteristics of ceramic lasers to be tailored, providing the opportunity to design lasers with novel properties and functions,” he reports.

His team is working with wet chemical processes and advanced ceramic processing methods to synthesize transparent ceramics. Wu says, “It would take months to grow single crystals with an appropriate size, but only several hours are needed to make these transparent ceramics.”

The image (above) shows progress the group has made synthesizing transparent Yb:S-FAP. The focus is on understanding the fundamental mechanisms that control the quality of the materials, which can be applied to a broader class of anisotropic transparent ceramics. To this end, the group is looking at other compositions, too, such as Y3Al5O12, ZnS, Lu2O3, CaF2 and Y2O3.

Wu will share more about his work with Yb:S-FAP and other transparent laser ceramics in the March 2013 issue of The Bulletin.